Various risk and protective factors among the child, family, and community can impact the ways in which children and teens process and understand the exposure to violence.
Resilience has been defined as the maintenance of healthy ⁄ successful functioning or adaptation within the context of a significant adversity or threat.
Women with family incomes less than ,500 are five times more likely to be victims of violence by an intimate than women with family annual incomes between ,000 and ,000. Although the poorest women are the most victimized by domestic violence, one study also found that women receiving government income support payments through Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) were three times more likely to have experienced physical aggression by a current or former partner during the previous year than non-AFDC supported women. Overall, in the United States, blacks experience higher rates of victimization than other groups: black females experience intimate violence at a rate 35 percent higher than that of white females, and black males experience intimate violence at a rate about 62 percent higher than that of white males and about two and a half times the rate of men of other races. Other survey research, more inclusive of additional racial groups, finds that American Indian/Alaskan Native women experience significantly higher rates of physical abuse as well., † It is unclear how much of the differences in victimization rates by race is the result of willingness to reveal victimization to survey interviewers (Tjaden and Thoennes, 2000).
Domestic violence, generally, has high levels of repeat calls for police service. For instance, police data in West Yorkshire (United Kingdom) showed that 42 percent of domestic violence incidents within one year were repeat offenses, and one-third of domestic violence offenders were responsible for two-thirds of all domestic violence incidents reported to the police.
Exposure to domestic violence can have lasting effects on children and teens.
Not all young people are affected in the same way, and in fact many children are resilient, able to heal and go on to thrive.
Risk factors do not automatically mean that a person will become a domestic violence victim or an offender.
Also, although some risk factors are stronger than others, it is difficult to compare risk factor findings across studies because of methodological differences between studies.
There is usually not a good way to predict which teens will become violent or find specific teen violence causes, but knowing some of the causes of teen violence may help parents and other adults help teens who are at risk.It is likely that some victims of domestic violence experience physical assault only once and others experience it repeatedly over a period as short as 12 months. British research suggests that the highest risk period for further assault is within the first four weeks of the last assault. Offenders convicted of domestic violence account for about 25 percent of violent offenders in local jails and 7 percent of violent offenders in state prisons. Many of those convicted of domestic violence have a prior conviction history: more than 70 percent of offenders in jail for domestic violence have prior convictions for other crimes, not necessarily domestic violence. Although there is a popular conception that the risk of domestic violence increases when a couple separates, in fact, most assaults occur during a relationship rather than after it is over. However, still unknown is whether the severity (as opposed to the frequency) of violence increases once a battered woman leaves.Contrary to popular belief, pregnant women are no more likely than non-pregnant women to be victims of domestic violence. In fact, some women get a reprieve from violence during pregnancy.These inequalities can increase women’s and girls’ risks of abuse, violent relationships and exploitation, for example, due to economic dependency and limited survival and income-earning options, or discrimination under the law as it relates to marriage, divorce, and child custody rights.Violence against women and girls is not only a consequence of gender inequality, but reinforces women’s low status in society and the multiple disparities between women and men.If you have been victimized by an intimate partner — recently or in the past — you may experience one or many of the following: Your internet use can be monitored and is impossible to completely erase.