Ancient polyploidization predating divergence of the cereals

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By using large collections of ESTs, investigators have been able to propose ancient duplication events for various angiosperm lineages, but the data remain taxonomically sparse.

To increase phylogenetic breadth, we propose that over 550 phylogenetically pivotal angiosperm species and a suite of gymnosperm outgroups be included as part of this initiative. Widespread paleopolyploidy in model plant species 4.

Polyploids — organisms that have multiple sets of chromosomes — are common in certain plant and animal taxa, and can be surprisingly stable.

Ancient genome duplications are widespread throughout eukaryotic lineages, particularly in plants.

Such an event could either double the genome of a single species (autopolyploidy) or combine those of two species (allopolyploidy).

Because of functional redundancy, genes are rapidly silenced or lost from the duplicated genomes.

Soltis et al., 2000, with modifications reflecting more recent analyses, including Jansen et al., 2007), depicting putative locations of genome duplication events now inferred for flowering plants relative to major lineages or species with sequenced nuclear genomes or substantial expressed sequence tag data (taken from Soltis et al., 2009). Unravelling angiosperm genome evolution by phylogenetic analysis of chromosomal duplication events.

Polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in angiosperm evolution.

Gene duplication is a major force in evolution and can provide the genetic material necessary for the origin of new genes with novel functions (Ohno 1970).

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